By David M. Mirvis M.D. (auth.), David M. Mirvis M.D. (eds.)
To accomplish those pursuits, the ebook is physique floor electrocardiographic mapping isn't a brand new strategy. it really is one firstly de divided into 5 sections. partly I, the deve veloped many many years in the past, however it has in basic terms lopment of electrocardiographic leads in addition to lately matured right into a robust instrument for floor mapping is seen from an old learning the cardiac electric box. This e-book point of view. this is often partly II by means of a is meant to check, either seriously and in overview of the elemental physiologic and aspect, the purposes of this special procedure biophysical rules of electrocardiography in either medical and experimental environments. and a dialogue of easy mapping options. A finished description of said re purposes of those the way to the traditional sults is, besides the fact that, just a first target. An both and the irregular center are then awarded in very important goal is to discover the elec elements III and IV, respectively. eventually, the trophysiologic and biophysical bases for the paintings concludes (Part V) with a attention empirically saw electrocardiographic pat of attainable destiny instructions that physique floor terns. it is just after contemplating those easy mapping may perhaps keep on with. the ultimate result's, wish foundations that the values and the restrictions totally, an intensive assertion defining the cur of any electrocardiographic procedure may be hire s~atus of physique floor electrocardiographic understood. this can be rather precise for physique mappmg.
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Each time the guts is challenged with an elevated paintings load for a protracted interval, it responds by means of expanding its muscle mass--a phenomenon often called cardiac hypertrophy. even though cardiac hypertrophy is usually visible below physiological stipulations comparable to improvement and workout, a large choice of pathological situa tions comparable to high blood pressure (pressure overload), valvular defects (volume overload), myocardial infarction (muscle loss), and cardiomyopathy (muscle affliction) also are recognized to bring about cardiac hypertrophy.
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Extra info for Body Surface Electrocardiographic Mapping
Does not permit model evaluation 1. Not sensitive to regional cardiac events 2. Conceptualizes all forces into three vectoral terms 3. Emphasis on intensity and direction of forces 4. Assumes a fixed location, single dipole model stress the time-intensity interaction, and this underlies the capability of regional cardiac examination stressed above. Evaluation of Cardiac Equivalent Generator Models. Fourth, body surface electro- cardiographic mapping permits evaluation of cardiac equivalent generator properties.
II. Temporal compression. Circ Res 1981;49:197-203. Lux RL, Urie PM, Burgess MJ, Abildskov JA: Variability of the body surface distributions of QRS, ST-T and QRST deflection areas with varied activation sequence in dogs. Cardiovasc Res 1980;14:607-612. Abildskov JA, Evans AK, Lux RL, Burgess MJ: Ventricular recovery properties and QRST deflection area in cardiac electrograms. Am J Physiol 1980 ;239 :H227 - 231. Abildskov JA, Green LS, Evans AK, Lux RL: The QRST deflection area of electrograms during global alterations of ventricular repolariza- 27 tion.
For clinical studies, 120-240 electrodes are included; for animal studies fewer than 100 may be needed. The relationship of one such set of 150 electrodes to those used for vectorcardiography and for standard electrocardiography is shown in figure 4-2. It is obvious that comprehensive mapping grids cover more of the chest surface than do these other systems; large regions, particularly on the back and the right chest, are not routinely explored. Traditionally, more electrodes are located on the anterior than on the posterior torso.