By Wolfgang Heering (auth.), Michael F. Holick (eds.)
As people ventured into the 20th century, the industrialized international locations have been faced with the scourge of rickets. even though solariums have been changing into universal within the early 1900s and phototherapy was once becoming more popular because of the awarding of a Nobel Prize to Finsen in 1903, it wasn't till 1921 whilst Hess and Unger established that rickets will be cured by way of publicity to daylight that the healthy good thing about solar publicity preferred. In 1941, Apperly (Cancer learn; 1: 191-195, 1941) famous that the occasional elevated danger of epidermis melanoma was once linked to a lowered danger of many different extra universal and severe cancers. The alarming elevate within the variety of circumstances of epidermis melanoma, particularly cancer, has triggered nice drawback in regards to the damaging position of sun in healthiness. The 6th overseas Arnold Rikli Symposium at the Biologic results of sunshine used to be held in Boston, Massachusetts from June sixteenth - 18th, 2001. The objective of this Symposium used to be to target the highly regarded perform of tanning both via sun or by means of synthetic mild resources and the general effect this custom has on health and wellbeing and disorder. this system was once prepared by means of contributors of the clinical Advisory Committee and my co-chair emeritus, Professor Ernst G. Jung. this system Committee equipped a very good state of the art application that used to be enthusiastically obtained through the participants.
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Additional resources for Biologic Effects of Light 2001: Proceedings of a Symposium Boston, Massachusetts June 16–18, 2001
Mountains, trees and building shield the eye from direct sky exposure. Most ground surfaces reflect only a small fraction of incident UVR. The result is that the highest UVR exposure appears to occur during light overcast where the horizon is visible and ground surface reflection is high. By contrast, exposure in a high mountain valley (lower ambient temperature) with green foliage results in a much lower ocular dose. Other findings of these studies show that retinal exposure to light and UVR in daylight occurs largely in the superior retina (Sliney, 1998).
Larko 0, Diffey BL, Natural UV-B radiation received by people with outdoor, indoor, and mixed occupations and UV-B treatment of psoriasis. Clin Exp Dermatol, 1983; 8:279-285. Munakata N, Kazadzis S, Bais A F, Hieda K, Ronta G, Rettberg P, Horneck G, Comparisons of spore dosimetry and spectral photometry of solar UV radiation at four sites in Japan and Europe, Photochem. , 2000; 72:739-745. , The human ultraviolet action spectrum Am J Optom Physiol Optics, 1974; 51(12):946-960. Pitts, DG, Cullen, AP, Hacker, PD, Ocular effects of ultraviolet radiation from 295 to 365 nm, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 1977; 16(10): 932-939.
7. 8. ACGIH, Documentation for the Threshold Limit Values 4th Edn, Cincinnati: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1992. Airey DK, Wong JCF, Fleming RA, A comparison of human- and headform based measurements of solar ultraviolet B dose, Photodermatol, Photoimmunol, Photomed, 1995; II: 155-158. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) TL V's, Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1999, Cincinnati: ACGIH,1999. CIE, Erythemal reference action spectrum and standard erythemal dose, CIE Standard S007 -1998, Vienna: CIE, 1998; also available as ISO 17166, 1999.