By Burnet MacFarlane
In 1957 or thereabouts I turned inspired with how immunity can be checked out as a technique of Darwinian choice among the circulating lymphoid cells of the physique. The clonal choice thought which grew out of this has been usually permitted in precept by way of immunologists, yet i don't suppose that its complete implications on the subject of pathology have not begun been largely discovered. In a prior e-book, Immunological Surveillance, i've got attempted to use the method of melanoma immunity. this can be a primarily related try to examine auto-immune sickness from an identical Darwinian perspective. a person who makes an attempt to supply appropriate common statements approximately complicated organic and scientific phenomena should have a definite feel of guilt. No organic phenomenon can ever be thoroughly, or perhaps accurately, defined. There can, at top, simply be a innovative development within the acceptability, the highbrow attractiveness, or the sensible usefulness of the operating generalizations that may be produced. Any try to write at this interpretative point can simply be dismissed as superficial, pointless, and vulnerable to be proved flawed or inappropriate through new advancements. it truly is anathema to many stable expert scientists and their objections are genuine enough.
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The cell may be transformed into a lymphoblast from which a fresh clone of lymphocyte derives or into a plasmablast from which a clone of cells producing one or other type of immunoglobulin will arise. Multiplication of a single cell to produce a clone requires, of course, a supply of all the chemical building blocks and the energy to make, say, a hundred cells to the pattern of one. The initial cell of the clone can be said to supply all the information needed, but the substance must come from elsewhere.
In the mouse it appears highly probable that for cells to manifest the functions we speak of as thymus-dependent they must either spend some time as a developing clone within the thymus or be subject to some hormone liberated by the thymus. Yet unexpected happenings are legion. Standard Swiss mice (which are not a pure line strain) show for a period after neonatal thymectomy the expected incapacity to reject foreign skin grafts. They do not, however, show the 'runting' and death observed in many pure line strains after about three months, and by the time they are fully grown their immune capacity is not demonstrably inferior to that of mice which have retained their thymuses.
Modern immunological theory 47 Multiple myeloma and myeloma proteins Like almost every other type of cell in the body, immunocytes are subject to malignant change, and since one of the main objectives of this book is to draw attention to the resemblances of the auto-immune process to malignant disease, some consideration of myelomatosis is called for. e. plasmablasts or immature plasma cells. For the immunologist this disease is of the greatest interest, particularly because it can be induced with some regularity in at least one strain of mice, as well as being a not very uncommon human ailment, especially in elderly men.