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By Norman K. Hollenberg (ed.)

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8 \II ---=::::::::::: \II is. _ 100- ;;; >VI c til ~ E E lOS- ~ n7-4" :; '" C. 5-23. :! 8 I I r , n:I Birth weight. 1 ~ I 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 A =------- ~ ~ E E 105 - , , , , , 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 B Birth weight. 8 A TLAS OF HYPERTENSION -- 28 FIGURE 1-53. In utero effects on growth appear to influence the subsequent expression of blood pressure in children and adults. 5 years. 5 for boys (A) and girls (B). Birth weight has a significant inverse relationship with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of childhood when standardized for contemporaneous weight (weight ranges for each quintile are to the right of the regression lines).

MmHg 77 CUT JU T BEHI D -QUAD CUTC-QUAD LEFT TO RIGHT 105- 97 i and J,; e ntuall 67 mmHg 40mm H Longer time high; ev ntually 67 mm Hg 65 limulation 89 71 169 133 127- 1 0 61 7 95- 144 56 iatic n rv A ciati nerve timulation 6 46 TLAS OF HYPERTENSION - - 38 Parasympathetic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system Preganglionic neuron Acetylcholine - Postganglionic neuron Acetylcholine - oradrenal ine - Acetylcholine -I FIGURE 2-4. The neuronal organization of the autonomic nervous system. Neurons in the sympathetic nervous system emerge from the central nervous system (eNS) and run to sympathetic ganglia near the spinal cord.

In this study, skin color was measured by reflectometry in blacks in three US cities. Blood pressure was higher in darker-skinned individuals; however, there was also a strong correlation between socioeconomic status, as measured by the Green index (which classifies education, income, and occupation [61]) and high blood pressure, as well as between educational level and high blood pressure. Higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with darker skin color independent of age, body mass index, blood glucose concentration, urea nitrogen, uric acid, and urinary sodium and potassium in a multiple linear-regression analysis.

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