By Heimo Uhrmann
Starting from the fundamentals of analog filters and the terrible transistor features in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters built by means of the authors in one hundred twenty nm and sixty five nm CMOS are defined greatly. between them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and energetic filters for system-on-chip consciousness for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE purposes. For the lively filters a number of operational amplifier designs are defined. The publication, in addition, includes a overview of the most recent nation of analysis on low-voltage low-power analog filters. to hide the subject of the e-book comprehensively, linearization concerns and dimension tools for the characterization of complicated analog filters are brought additionally. a number of problematic illustrations advertise a simple comprehension. This booklet should be of worth to engineers and researchers in in addition to scientists and Ph.D scholars at universities. The publication can be recommendable to graduate scholars specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics or circuit engineering.
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Additional info for Analog Filters in Nanometer CMOS
5 Architectures of Gm -C Filters The usual way to implement high order filters is the cascade connection of 1storder and 2nd-order filters due to the modularity of structure and simplicity. 5 Architectures of Gm -C Filters 47 Fig. 6 1st-order filter Fig. 7 Simple 1st-order filter realization of a 1st-order Gm -C filter is shown in Fig. 6. 7) The transconductor Gm2 can be substituted by a resistor (see Fig. 7). 8) In Fig. 8 the Gm -C topology of a 2nd-order filter is shown. It consists of an ideal integrator (Gm1 , C1 ) and a lossy integrator (Gm2 , C2 , R2 ).
17. For two transconductors (Gm0 , Gm2 ) a digitally programmable concept was developed. 10)). In the Figs. 19(b) the chip photograph and the layout plot of the realized filter are shown. All capacitors were realized as metal-metal capacitors. The chip area of the whole chip is 850 µm × 550 µm, the chip area of the filter is 270 µm × 140 µm. 5 V. 20 shows the measured DC transfer characteristics for the case of minimum and maximum gain. The curve is linear for an input voltage range of 900 mV for minimum gain and 400 mV for maximum gain.
Generally, in a fully differential design, a high power-supply rejection ratio (PSRR) and a high common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) can be achieved as well as the even-order distortions are eliminated. In mixed-signal or system on chip designs, fully differential structures are important for reducing interference and noise from digital circuits on the same chip. The LNA (low-noise amplifier) is followed by a PGC (programmable-gain control). The Gilbert-type down-conversion mixer generates the quadrature (I and Q) outputs.