By Bernard Morrill
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T h e total capacitance, as seen in Fig. 13) HHHh-Hh Ci Ι 1 1 · · · · 1 C2 C3 c„ Ι (a) 1 (b) Fig. 15 Therefore, w e can conclude that for a parallel arrangement of several capacitors, the charge is the extensive property and the voltage the intensive. 14) F o r capacitors arranged in series, see Fig. 15(b), it can b e seen that the extensive property is i;*, since v * = v* + v* + v* + . . 17) 52 First Law of Thermodynamics T h e w o r k equations for capacitors can be used for mechanical springs.
1-22. 40) is compressed adiabatically from3 15 psia and 10 ft to 5 ft . The air is then expanded at constant pressure to 10 ft . Finally, it is cooled at constant volume until the initial conditions are restored. Calculate: (a) The change of internal energy during each of three processes. (b) The net heat and the net work transferred to or from the system during the cycle.
W e shall use a kinetic theory of gas a p p r o a c h to a perfect gas that p o s s e s s e s energy derived solely from the translational motions of the molecules of the gas. By restricting o u r discussion to a s y s t e m that p o s s e s s e s energy due to the velocity of translation only, w e are severely limiting o u r analysis. W e are in effect restricting our discussion to a m o n a t o m i c gas. T h e r e are other o c c a s i o n s , h o w e v e r , w h e n a gas, o t h e r than a m o n a t o m i c gas, can be so modeled since the greatest contributions to its internal energy m a y c o m e from the kinetic energy of translation.