Download An Illustrated History of Health and Fitness, from by Roy J. Shephard PDF

By Roy J. Shephard

This e-book examines the health/fitness interplay in an historic context. starting in primitive hunter-gatherer groups, the place survival required enough actual task, it is going directly to think about alterations in health and wellbeing and actual task at next levels within the evolution of “civilization.” It makes a speciality of the future health affects of a growing to be knowing of medication and body structure, and the emergence of a middle-class with the time and cash to choose from lively and passive hobbies. The booklet displays on urbanization and industrialization in terms of the necessity for public wellbeing and fitness measures, and the ever-diminishing actual calls for of the work-place. It then evaluates the attitudes of prelates, politicians, philosophers and academics at every one degree of the method. eventually, the e-book explores specialist and governmental tasks to extend public involvement in energetic relaxation via a number of tuition, worksite, leisure and activities programmes.

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Extra info for An Illustrated History of Health and Fitness, from Pre-History to our Post-Modern World

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5 Oral Tradition and Historical Records of Habitual Physical Activity Levels. . 23 Like the Aztecs, the Maya people supplemented the physical demands of daily life with vigorous physical activities that had both recreational and religious significance. The most obvious was their version of the Meso-American ballgame, described in the Holy Book Popul-Vuh (Cox et al. 1973). Stone artifacts suggest that players were equipped with face masks, arm wrappings and knee protectors. The Mayans sometimes called the game poc-a-toc; it symbolized for them not only the victory of the mythical hero twins Hun Ahpu and Xbalanque over the underworld lords of Xibalba and the powers of darkness, but also the cyclical nature of life (Coe 1989).

The men used paddles for propulsion, but the women might also assist by using oars, and occasionally sails were created from seal intestines. 8 1 Prehistory Fig. 4 The whalebone frame of an Umiak, as devised by the Thule people (Source: http://en. 4 Neolithic Societies Mesolithic groups were in turn supplanted by Neolithic societies who had advanced further along the road of technical progress. Change started in the more fertile regions of the globe, probably beginning with the Sumerians around 9,500 BCE.

15 Mayan palace in Palenque, from seventh century CE, constructed without access to draught animals, metals or pulleys (Source: http://en. org/wiki/Maya_ civilization) Fig. 16 Terraced fields constructed by the Mayan civilization at Machu Picchu, in Peru (Source: http://en. org/wiki/ Machu_Picchu) The general population lived in small thatched cottages, and were responsible for constructing not only their own homes, but also those of the chiefs. They were further required to till land for their chiefs, and to give them a share of game such as deer, armadillo, peccary (an animal related to the pig) and turtles, as well as fish (de Landa Calde´ron 1937; Sharer 2006).

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