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By Majid Fakhry

The 1st accomplished survey of Islamic philosophy from the 7th century to the current, this vintage discusses Islamic notion and its impact at the cultural elements of Muslim lifestyles. Fakhry indicates how Islamic philosophy has from the earliest instances a particular line of improvement, which provides it the team spirit and continuity which are the marks of the good highbrow routine of heritage. (Fall 2006)

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38 If such accounts are to be trusted, al-Ma'mnn's liberal-mindedness was such that he entertained the most adverse commentaries on his reign with great openness and equanimity. The story is told of a Sufi who, having been brought before the caliph, put 34 35 36 37 38 Al-Fihrist, pp. 392--93, 353; al-Qifti, Tankh, pp. 315-16, 441 f. Mas'odi, Murilj, VII, pp. 38-43. Al-Fihrist, p. 174. , Murftj, VII, pp. 7-1o, 39 f. Murilj, VII, pp. , and Suyoti, Tankh al-Khulafa', p. 310. "39 In reply to this bold question, the caliph is reported to have engaged in a subtle defense of political authority as the indispensable antidote to anarchy, and then to have offered to resign his office if this nowdisgruntled interlocutor could find another candidate to the caliphal office who would be acceptable to the whole Muslim community.

The former work has been shown to be a paraphrase of Books IV, V, and VI of the Enneads of Plotinus, which explains in part Porphyry's association with it in the Arabic tradition. That the Enneads' genuine author is not mentioned in connection with this compilation, however, is due primarily to the startling fact that this great Greek thinker was almost unknown to the Arabs by name. " In both the Theologia and De Causis, the doctrine of emanation, which served as the cornerstone of almost the whole of Arab philosophical thought, is fully expounded and discussed.

332. 87 Al-Fihrist, p. 371, and al-Qifti, Tarrkh, p. 258. 88 Al-Fihrist, p. 366; al-Qifti, Tarrkh, p. ScJ In this movement of desire, the author finds the clue not only to the nature of the Soul, which acts as the link between the sensible and the intelligible worlds, but also the emanation of all things from the One (or First). 92 In support of this view, the author invokes the authority of Heraclitus, Empedocles, Pythagoras, and Plato, who are all said to have held that the Soul descends into the body from the intelligible world and will rejoin it upon its release from the bondage of the body.

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