By Regula Christiansen-Bolli
The current learn offers an in depth description of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay department of the Nilo-Saharan language crew. it truly is spoken by means of nearly 30,000 humans, consisting more often than not of the ethnic crew of the Idaksahak who're residing within the East of Mali in addition to in remoted areas in western Niger. The publication is split into 4 chapters giving an entire evaluation: the 1st brief bankruptcy offers information regarding the historical past of the Idaksahak. within the moment bankruptcy, the phonological good points of the language are defined, whereas the 3rd bankruptcy is devoted to the outline of the morphology of Tadaksahak. it truly is proven that verbal derivation pulls on unrelated Tamasheq for causative, reciprocal and heart in addition to passive. additionally, any verb root that's of Songhay beginning is suppleted whilst derived and a semantic similar of Tamasheq foundation takes its position. one other non-Songhay function issues inflection the place the topic pronoun cliticizes to the verb and is often current even if a noun word holds the topic slot. The nominalization method used is dependent upon the etymology of the time period, a characteristic paralleled within the formation of adjectives. The final bankruptcy is devoted to the syntax of the language and provides kinds of noun words. additionally, the different sorts of straightforward clauses are taken care of in addition to focalization and topicalization in such clauses. query phrases and supplement clauses together with the 2 attainable relativization recommendations also are thought of, whereas the final part approximately complicated sentences provides subordinate clauses. within the appendices texts with glosses, lists of verb roots with their suppletions while derived, a wordlist Tadaksahak-English containing Songhay cognates and an index English-Tadaksahak are given.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali)
45) Verbs dropping final /i/ Tadak keedí yéeri diní jeejí gloss to mount (animal) to vomit to take to hang Songhay (KCH) kaar yeer din deeji (46) Tamasheq cognates surfacing /y/ Tadak yíṛẓi yíɣli yíṇṣi yílbi gloss to stick sth. into to go / turn around to beg to take out of Tamasheq (W) ǝrẓǝy ǝɣlǝy aṇsǝy ǝlbǝy Final /e/ and /o/ on verbs are so rare that not many observations can be reported for these vowels. See below for mó ‘hear’ (other items: babó ‘be numerous’, sotóroro ‘drop regularly’). 36 Verb-final /a/ is dropped both in verbs of Songhay and in verbs of Tamasheq origin.
With the plural morpheme. Phonological Structure 15 /c/ and /j/ are restricted in their distribution at the lexical level. In stems, they do not occur preceding the back vowels /u/ and /o/. g. the noun cijí ‘night’ can be followed by the demonstrative óoda ‘this’ meaning ‘the night in question’. The rules for final vowel deletion lead to an allowed pronunciation [ciˈdʒoːda]. However, there exists another noun ‘tonight’ cigóoda composed of similar elements but frozen to an expression that is pronounced [ciˈgo:da].
1) and examples in the texts. On the whole, unstressed vowels tend to be pronounced as more central and lax so that their quality is not always clear in rapid speech. Yet asking the speaker to slow down will render full Vs where schwa was perceived beforehand. Examples: [bǽːɾǝɾ] baarar ‘child’ [ɔːdǝ] ooda ‘this’ Nicolaï (1979a:342) comments on this fact saying that “Il semble que l’importance et la netteté de réalisation des unités du système consonantique soient corrélatives d’une certaine labilité dans les réalisations des phonèmes vocaliques…”.