By Seiichi Makino; Michio Tsutsui
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Extra info for A Dictionary of intermediate japanese grammar = Nihongo kihon bunpo jiten
E. pidginized pidgin) . 2 In addition, because of the ever more limited access to the superstrate, each new slave would increasingly be modelling their speech on the imper fect second language output of the slaves who arrived earlier. Thus, on at least the plantations with similar situations as Mauritius, pidginization was a cumulative and on-going process with each wave of immigrants repidginizing the previous slaves' attempts at second language learning (at whatever level they reached). Furthermore, the faster the new slaves arrived, the faster the level of access to the superstrate diminished, thereby creating ever more deficient pidgin.
Depth or "pureness") 1 of the Creoles studied. The motivation for each event is as follows. Prior to Event One, the number of Europeans exceeded the total number of slave imports. Because of this, there would be adequate contact with the ruling class for the slaves to learn a reasonable facsimile of the European language if they had enough time before the onset of Event One. That is, if the numerical status quo remained at pre-Event One levels for, let us say, 50 years (as was the case on Reunion), then the resultant code would resemble the speech of the ruling class (as was again the case on Reunion) and extensively superstrate-elaborated pidgin (or possibly no pidgin at all) would ensue.
Keep in mind that 70% of all early imports were adult and male (until 1735), creating an unequal balance between the sexes. This unequal balance further exasperated the male-female ratio in the bush com- Suriname, the Saramaka and Saramaccan 33 munities because many more men escaped than women (Curtin (1969)), As a result, the male members of the early Saramaka clans were forced to either take Indian wives or raid the plantations for what African slave women they could get (de Groot, pp. 9,16).