By Jonathan Franklin
On August five, 2010, on the San José mine in northern Chile, 33 males have been entombed 2,300 ft less than the earth while a slab of rock the dimensions of a skyscraper sheared off the mountain and sealed close their simply entry to the outside. The miners have been chanced on alive 17 days later, and for the following seven weeks after that discovery, as rescuers sought to carry them to the outside, the eyes of the area shifted to this formerly imprecise nook of South the US. greater than 2,000 newshounds and journalists flooded in to hide the drama. yet regardless of world wide curiosity, the media not often delved to both front traces of the rescue or under the skin of the tragedy. Locked at the back of police strains, so much newshounds have been decreased to months of interviewing relatives and politicians. despite the fact that, award-winning journalist Jonathan Franklin was once the exception.
The print journalist with the main wide entry and contacts, Franklin suggested, recorded, and filmed from front row of the operation because it spread out and, for this reason, used to be afforded remarkable and distinct entry to the miners and the rescuers. Now, for the 1st time ever, he tells their complete tale in 33 males: contained in the incredible Survival and Dramatic Rescue of the Chilean Miners
Franklin's prestige as a "local"--he has lived in Chile for sixteen years, speaks fluent Spanish, and has six daughters along with his Chilean wife--and his 25 years' event as an investigative reporter supplied him entry different newshounds may in basic terms dream of. for nearly six weeks he lived at the hillside that served because the rescue operation's nerve heart. He sat in on making plans conferences, pored over govt files, and recorded periods among the miners and the psychologists charged with taking care of their psychological well-being. He carried out interviews with miners' households, rescue employees, engineers, drill operators, and so on, together with President Piñera of Chile. Even earlier than the miners have been rescued, whereas they have been nonetheless underground, Franklin interviewed them through a makeshift telephone that attached them to the outside. "I sat during this box the place you'll choose up a cell, dial 11, and the telephone could ring down below," says Franklin, who constructed the sort of bond of belief with the miners that they defined in nice element the dramatic first 17 days in their confinement. bring to an end from the outside...
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Extra resources for 33 Men: Inside the Miraculous Survival and Dramatic Rescue of the Chilean Miners
Electronic edition published 2009. 32 Tonnage and Metal Content Above Cut-off 200 Cut-off Grade, %Cu FIGURE 5-1 year Graphical representation of grade–tonnage relationship for coming pounds of copper. 24 = $108 million Because of an unexpected increase in copper price, the mining company is investigating whether short-term changes could be made to mill feed and throughput, which would result in increased utility. 00 that was used for planning. The mine plan cannot be changed for at least one year and only changes in operating conditions can be made to the processing plant.
The utility of wasting material of grade x can be calculated as follows: U waste ( x ) = – ( M w + P w + O w ) To calculate the utility of stockpiling, one must take into consideration stockpiling costs and the cost of retrieving material from stockpile and processing it at a later date. In addition, metallurgical recoveries of stockpiled © 2008 by the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. All rights reserved. Electronic edition published 2009. MINIMUM CUT-OFF GRADES 29 material may differ from those of freshly mined material, and the price of the product sold may be different from that prevailing when the decision to stockpile is made: U stp ( x ) = – ( M stp + P stp + O stp ) – NPV (future costs of stockpile maintenance) – NPV (future rehandling and processing costs) + NPV (future revenues from sales) Mstp = current mining costs per metric ton delivered to the low-grade stockpile Pstp = current costs of stockpiling material that will be processed later, including the cost per metric ton of extending the stockpile area if required Ostp = current overhead costs associated with mining and stockpiling NPV (future costs of stockpile maintenance) = net present value of yearly costs that will be incurred to maintain stockpiled material in an environmentally safe fashion until it is processed NPV (future rehandling and processing costs) = net present value of the one-time costs that will be incurred when the material is retrieved from the stockpile and processed NPV (future revenues from sales) = net present value of revenues expected from sales when processed material is sold.
For such material, blasting and haulage costs must be incurred whether the material is treated as ore or waste. Only incremental costs need be considered. The minimum cut-off grade is estimated using the formula presented previously for material in the middle of an open pit mine: xc = [ ( Mo – Mw ) + ( Po – Pw ) + ( Oo – Ow ) ] ⁄ [ r ⋅ ( V – R ) ] If ore and waste mining costs are the same (Mo = Mw) and waste processing and overhead costs are negligible (Pw = 0 and Ow = 0), this formula can be written xc = [ Po + Oo ] ⁄ [ r ⋅ ( V – R ) ] The mill cut-off grade is recognized here.