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Better gm /GDS ratios are the only advantage of GaAs over Si PBTs, because in a typical operation point both devices perform in the electron saturation velocity regime, which is approximately equal in both materials. However, due to the ⌫–L scattering in GaAs and the resulting negative differential slope in velocity–field curve the dc output characteristics of GaAs PBTs show a better saturation behavior and consequently a smaller drain conductance than do Si PBTs. [Table 1 (18–39); Table 2 (40–50)].

In one simple structure, the device combines an amplification mechanism, a time delay, and feedback. IMPATTs can be used as solid-state microwave oscillators or amplifiers. A number of variants and related device structures exist including the barrier injection and transit time (BARITT), double velocity transit time (DOVETT), and trapped plasma avalanche triggered transit (TRAPATT) diodes. OVERVIEW All avalanche diodes rely on the same physical principles for operation. In the remainder of this article, these principles will be illustrated using the avalanche photodiode (APD) (1–3) as an example.

Chynoweth, Ionization rates for electrons and holes in silicon, Phys. , 109: 1537–1540, 1958. 13. B. K. Ridley, Lucky-drift mechanism for impact ionisation in semiconductors, J. Phys. , 16: 3373–3388, 1983. 14. J. S. , 30: 125–132, 1987. 15. F. Capasso, Physics of avalanche photodiodes, Semicond. Semimetals, 22 (D): 1–172, 1985. 16. S. L. Miller, Avalanche breakdown in germanium, Phys. , 99: 1234–1241, 1955. 17. N. R. Howard, Avalanche multiplication in silicon junctions, J. Electron. Control, 13: 537–544, 1962.

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